Preface. (K.E. Friedl, Ph.D). State of the Art: Human Performance Assessment in the Military. Introduction. (B. Palmer). The Measurement of Individual and Unit Expertise. (J.L. Dyer). Toward the State of the Possible: Theory and Measurement of Human Performance. Theoretical Assumptions and Scientific Architecture. (J.W. Ness, V. Tepe). The Science of Human Performance: Methods and Metrics. (D. Boehm-Davis, R. Holt). Representing Cognition as an Intent-Driven Process. (J. Fallesen, S.M. Halpin). The Physiology of Performance, Stress, and Readiness. (D. Penetar, K.E. Friedl). Measuring Team Performance: A Review of Current Methods and Consideration of Future Needs. (D.L. Kendall, E. Salas). An Integrated Neurochemical Perspective on Human Performance Measurement. (F.H. Previc). Analytical Issues and Recommendations. Statistics and the Art of Model Construction. (R.R. Vickers, Jr.). Toward Realism in Human Performance Simulation. (B.G. Silverman). Conclusions and Recommendations: In Pursuit of Order and Progress. (G. Mastroianni, V.E. Middleton). Resources. The Study and Measurement of Human Performance by Military Service Laboratories. (E. Redden, J.B. Sheehy, E. Bjorkman).