The publication of this book is timely and appropriate because it deals with Eastern and Central Europe (ECE), and alliances with local partners with different attitudes, beliefs and ways of thinking. At the beginning of the 1990s many Western firms entered ECE hurriedly without thinking about the complexities associated with this region. Many promising business ideas failed due to lack of knowledge about the local environment including social, cultural, political and human resource related issues. This book therefore addresses issues in depth as how to reduce the gaps between Western and Eastern firms and how to make the alliances workable and fruitful. Initially motives are focused to assess partners' expectations from the alliances. Once expectations are known, it becomes easier to evaluate performance of the activities. Exchange of complementary resources plays a vital role in the formation, management and development of the relationships. The change of need over time and exchange of resources are seen as a consequence of learning that takes place on the part of alliance partners. Environmental factors are of particular interest in this study as they influence the operations in various ways and many times can directly contribute to the success or failure of the collaborations. It includes topics such as: Exchange of complementary resources; Grouping of Eastern and Central Europe on the basis of success in adopting market economy; Role of environment factors on alliance operations; Scope and consequence of learning on the alliance; and development and benefits of networking.