Introduction: regionality and culture (F. Engelstad). The cradle of capitalism: the North Sea (Baltic) Basin as an early modern macro region (L. Heerma van Voss). Europe and the regions: past, present, and future (M. Keating, S. Pintarits). Structural change, political realignment, and shifting identities: the emergence of Wales and Saxony as modern regions in Europe (J. Mathias). Stitching the balls on right on industrial restructuring and reflexive modernization: experiences from Northeast England and Northern Norway (A. Mariussen). Does the center imagine the periphery? State support and literacy regionalism in Norway and the United States (W. Griswold, F. Engelstad). The region as a reference for artistic creativity: the importance of regional identity for the distinctiveness of the Lusophone literatures (J.C. Venacio). Localized innovation networks in a global economy: a comparative analysis of endogenous and exogenous regional development approaches (B.T. Asheim, P. Cooke). Regional industrialization and political mobilization: regions in political party systems and industrialization in Norway (O. Wicken).