Section headings and selected papers: Classical and New Wave. About the editors. List of contributors. Preface. Introduction and Overview. Introduction to Part A. The Classical Approaches. The Ohio state model. Is it "trustworthy?" A multiple-level-of-analysis reexamination of an Ohio state leadership study, with implications for future research (C.A. Schriesheim et al.). Consideration and structure: another look at their role in leadership research (E.A. Fleishman). Implications of a multiple-levels-of-analysis Ohio state leadership study for estimating interrater agreement (L.R. James). "Trustworthy" is a judgment call! (C.A. Schriesheim et al.). Contingency model. The contingency model of leadership effectiveness: its levels of analysis (R. Ayman et al.). Participative leadership. Situation effects and levels of analysis in the study of leader participation (V.H. Vroom, A.G. Jago). Multiple-levels as a self fulfilling prophecy: one sees what one expects to see (D. Eden). The New Wave Approaches. Self-leadership. Self-management and self-leadership reexamined: a levels-of-analysis perspective (S.E. Markham, I.S. Markham). Appendix: measures and assessments for the self-management/self-leadership approach (S.E. Markham, I.S. Markham). Multiple-linkage leadership. Relationships of managerial effectiveness and advancement to self-reported and subordinate-reported leadership behaviors from the multiple-linkage model (H. Kim, G. Yukl). Limitations in the managerial practices questionnaire and the leadership study (G. Yukl, H. Kim). Multi-level leadership. Multi-level leadership: grounded theory and mainstream theory applied to the case of General Motors (J.G. Hunt, A. Ropo). Individualized leadership. Individual leadership: a new multiple-level approach (F. Dansereau et al.). Assumptions, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational contexts in the individualized leadership approach (G.R. Ferris, G. Harrell-Cook).