This book focuses on the challenges facing women who seek to create innovative entrepreneurial ventures, whilst also celebrating their scientific activities and contribution to technological advancement, society and economic development as a whole. It investigates and demonstrates the innovative and inventive achievements of women in the knowledge based society. It is almost universally accepted that scientific activities and discoveries are the most important sources of productivity growth and increased material welfare. Throughout history, women have been making significant contributions to scientific discoveries, innovation and inventions. However, they do not feature prominently in the inventive and innovative literatures except as exceptional examples. Current literature on scientific activities and discoveries, various facets of R&D or the management of technological change and scientific activities tends to ignore the gender dimension. This book seeks to redress this balance and contribute to current research and debate.