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Cultural Differences between the Military and Parent Society in Democratic Countries Vol: 4

Product Details
01 Jun 2007
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
376 pages - 156 x 234 x 22mm
Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development


This book is a report of cross-national research on the civil-military cultural differences in democratic societies, particularly centred on the attitudes of national elites, here considered as being mainly composed of professionals. The research studies the question: What are the differences between the values, opinions and attitudes of military officers and those of professionals belonging to other categories? What is the effect of these differences on society in each country, and on the national security sector? What are the current trends of this gap? Researchers investigated a sample of cadets at military academies and their generational peers at civilian universities (future elites). An expert survey was also employed to sample present elites, both civilian and military.The report is divided into three parts: the first describes the methodological aspect of the research; the second part, taking a comparative international approach, analyses the results of the research with respect to the main survey themes; the third part continues the volume by examining specific national themes in the context of the results of the cross-national comparison developed in the preceding part. In a final chapter, the data of the expert survey has been compared with the data that emerged from the survey of future elites, to glean elements for a general summary and evaluation on the cultural gap. This is the first cross-national research outside the U.S. on civil/ military cultural differences. It is a significant comparison of the attitudes of present and future elites on security matter. It provides a deep understanding of national specificities of the 13 participating countries on the military issues.
Theoretical Framework of the Research. The Methodological Approach of the Study on the Differences between Civilian Students and Military Cadets. Value Orientations and Political Attitudes among Future Military and Civilian Elites. Effects of the Socialisation Process on the Cultural Attitudes of Future Elites. Media and Public Opinion. Threat Perception: New Risks, New Threats and New Missions. Democratic Control Over the Armed Forces. New Missions and the Changing Character of Military Organisations. Integration of Women into the Armed Forces: Is there a Gap between the Attitudes of Civilian Elites and Military Elites?. National Differences in Military Values and Civilian Values: Is the Gap Culture-Free or Culture-Bound?. Civil–Military Relations in Bulgaria. Civil Cultural and Military Models in France: Common Models?. The Civil–Military Gap among German Future Elites. The Cultural Gap between the Military and the Parent Society in Italy. The Civil–Military Gap in the Netherlands. Civil–Military Cultural Gap in Romania. Some Remarks on Civil–Military Relations in Poland. The Historical Basis for Civil–Military Relations in Slovenia. Civil–Military Relations and the Emergence of a Civil–Military Gap in South Africa. The Difficulties Faced by Civil–Military Relations Undergoing Constant Improvement in Spain Since 1975. The Swedish Armed Forces: Recent Developments and Future Strategy. The Structural Basis of the Swiss Army. A Comparison of Civil–Military Attitudes: The Case of Turkey. Introduction. Conclusion: Comparison of Current and Future Elites. Note on Contribu tors. Index.

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