This volume takes stock of the latest international business research on the relationship between European multinational enterprises (MNEs) and their policy environment. The volume brings together a variety of scholarly contributions from an European perspective. European MNEs were amongst the earliest to internationalize and many now command globally dispersed operations. European MNEs pioneered the multi-centric organizational form, which can be interpreted in part as an effort to address the policy challenges facing these firms in environments fraught with natural and government-imposed market imperfections. The volume covers four dimensions of MNE corporate strategy in the face of complex policy environments: corporate strategic responses to national policy institutions; pro-active institution-oriented strategies; dynamics of international business-government relations; and, corporate strategies in turbulent times.