The terms gender, careers and inequalities were chosen to delineate the conceptual framework of this book - the second volume of a new series focussed on equality, diversity and inclusion issues. Each of the concepts adds to a different and unique dimension to the study of medicine and medical education. Gender allows for a reading of power and exclusion of women in medicine and medical education. Careers and inequalities draw attention to the multiplicity of factors that influence women's participation in the medical profession including the interconnectedness of gender, race, ethnicity, age, sexuality, creed and disability in the workplace. Scholars bring insights from across disciplines of social sciences, including sociology, medical anthropology, psychology, and human resources management and have been encouraged to provide cross-national and multi-dimensional insights through comparative analysis.