This Encyclopedia provides scholarly information on all aspects of Educational Technology. Educational Technology is seen as a problem-solving process, concerning most aspects of teaching and learning through media and technology, in the context of education and training. Problems may arise in subdomains of education, such as curriculum, instruction and learning, methods and media, or organization and management. In developing solutions, use will be made of many technologies in the narrower meaning of the word - educational aspects and applications of information and communication technology. A variety of education and institutional settings are presented as they determine potential solutions. Entries are organized in five broad categories: educational technology as a concept and as a field and how it is disseminated in different ways; functions such as needs assessment, design, media production, evaluation, diffusion and implementation, as the design process is highly dependent on good organization, it also includes entries on management of educational technology and on resources frequently used by educational technologists; strategies, techniques, materials and devices to deliver technology; applications of educational technology in institutional settings; and, emerging issues in the field. This volume includes entries from the highly acclaimed "International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd Edition" (described by "Choice" as being "a premier resource when judged on virtually every criteria applied to a reference work"). Given the dynamic nature of the field, many of these entries have been revised and updated, and a number of new entries have been commissioned, giving a more complete coverage of the domain of educational technology. New entries include: Computer-supported Design for Computer-aided Instruction, Computer-based Curriculum Development and Job Aids.