The damaging environmental impact of urban transport, as recognised by the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, is a worsening global problem that needs to be tackled with local solutions. At the same time, urban transport has been causing serious local environmental problems, particularly in developing countries. This book was commissioned with the aim of helping to develop solutions by sharing experience from around the world. Four extensive chapters by leading researchers give an overview of the problem, analyse structures and trends in urban transportation, list the various ways transport affects the environment, and critically review the whole range of policy countermeasures available. The second half of the volume is given over to a uniquely valuable collection of case studies of 21 metropolises, carefully selected to provide a cross-section of different types of city from across the developing and developed world. The relevant characteristics of these cities are systematically described: socio-economic background; local condition of transport and the environment; policy planning, implementation, and evaluation, all with concrete examples.Key data are then presented in charts with a common structure to facilitate comparisons between cities.
Introduction. Overview of Urban Transport and the Environment. (Hideo Nakamura et al.). Development of Motorised Society. (Hideo Nakamura). Environmental Problems caused by Urban Transport. (Hideo Nakamura). Global Environmental Problems. (Hideo Nakamura). The Urban Transport System. (G. Giuliano). Introduction. (G. Giuliano). Trends in Motorisation. (G. Giuliano). Travel patterns. (G. Giuliano). Urban Structure: Decentralisation and Urban Transport. (G. Giuliano). Urban Transport in Developing Countries. (D. Sperling). Conclusion. (G. Giuliano). Environmental Impacts Due to Urban Transport. (D. Sperling). Introduction. (Shinya Hanaoka, Akira Okada). Source of Emissions. (Shinya Hanaoka, Masaharu Yagishita). Local Air Environment. (Shinya Hanaoka, Masaharu Yagishita). Local Air Quality and Transport in Different Cities. (Yoshikuni Kobayashi, Hideo Nakamura). Global Warming. (D. Sperling). Noise. (W. Schade). Transport and Land Use Instruments for a Better Environment. (A. D. May). Introduction. (A. D. May). Problems, Objectives and Strategies. (A. D. May). Classification of Policy Instruments. (A. D. May). The Performance of Different Types of Policy Instrument. (A. D. May). Technological Countermeasures for Gas Emissions. (Makoto Okazaki, D. Sperling). Overall Contribution to Strategies and Objectives. (A. D. May). Responsibilities and Barriers. (A. D. May). Integrated Strategies. (A. D. May). The Use of Causal Loop Diagrams to Determine the Most Appropriate Instruments. (Hirokazu Kato). Transport-Environment Issues and Countermeasures in Various Metropolises. (Kazuaki Miyamoto). Introduction. (Kazuaki Miyamoto). Berlin. (W. Schade). Budapest. (B. Horvatth, J. Monigl). Istanbul. (H. GerHek). Lyon. (D. Mignot, J-P. Nicolas). Nottingham. (B. James). Rome. (A. N. Musso). Cairo. (A. S. Huzayyin, O. Osman). Los Angeles. (Hanh Dam Le). Bogotao. (J-M. Cusset). Curitiba. (Fumihiko Nakamura). Mexico City. (A. Paez). Santiago. (F. J. Martinez, R. Quijada). Nagoya. (Hirokazu Kato). Adelaide. (M. A. P. Taylor and R. Zito). Bangkok. (Yordphol Tanaboriboon). Dalian. (Zhongzhen Yang). Hanoi. (J-M. Cusset). Kathmandu. (Surya Raj Acharya). Manila. (K. N. Vergel). Seoul. (Sungwon Lee). Singapore. (M. A. Aziz, Tien Fang Fwa). Political Climate for Environmental Policies and Proposals for International Mechanism. (W. Rothengatter). Introduction. (Yoshitsugu Hayashi). Typical Political Trends Relating to Transport Environment Policies. (Yoshitsugu Hayashi, Hirokazu Kato). Direction of Ecological Transport Strategy in Developed Countries. (W. Rothengatter). Environmental Policies in Developing Countries. (D. Sperling). Political Climate for Environmental Policies and International Funding Measures. (Yoshitsugu Hayashi, Hirokazu Kato). Appendix. References. Index. Abbreviations.